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Non-Cognitive Variables in Learning Print Page


Beard, C., Clegg, S., & Smith, K. (April 01, 2007). Acknowledging the affective in higher education. British Educational Research Journal, 33, 2, 235-252. Available from Wiley Online.

Boyle, A., Maguire, S., Martin, A., Milsom, C., Nash, R., Rawlinson, S., Turner, A., ... Conchie, S. (May 01, 2007). Fieldwork Is Good: The Student Perception and the Affective Domain. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 31, 2, 299-317. Abailable through ERIC.

Engberg, M. E. (January 01, 2004). Improving Intergroup Relations in Higher Education: A Critical Examination of the Influence of Educational Interventions on Racial Bias. Review of Educational Research, 74, 4, 473-524. Available from Article First.

Eraut, M. (October 01, 1970). Course Development: An approach to the improvement of teaching in higher education *. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1, 3, 195-206. Available from Wiley Online Library.

Ford, N. (May 01, 1979). Study Strategies, Orientations and ‘Personal Meaningfulness’ in Higher Education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 10, 2, 143-160. Available through Wiley Online Library.

Francis, L. J. (April 01, 1993). Measuring Attitude toward Computers among Undergraduate College Students: The Affective Domain. Computers and Education, 20, 3, 251-55. Avaiable through ERIC.

Ghaith, G. M., Shaaban, K. A., & Harkous, S. A. (2007). An Investigation of the Relationship between Forms of Positive Interdependence, Social Support, and Selected Aspects of Classroom Climate. System: An International Journal Of Educational Technology And Applied Linguistics, 35(2), 229-240. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Hazari, Z., Tai, R. H. and Sadler, P. M. (2007), Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affective factors. Sci. Ed., 91: 847–876. doi: 10.1002/sce.20223. Wiley Online.

Hew, K. F. and Cheung, W. S. (2010), Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41: 33–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00900.x. Wiley Online.

Horne, S. E. (September 01, 1980). Behavioural Objectives in the Affective Domain: a new model*. British Educational Research Journal, 6, 2, 189-196. Available through Wiley Online Library.

Huws, N., Reddy, P. A., & Talcott, J. B. (2009). The effects of faking on non-cognitive predictors of academic performance in University students. Learning & Individual Differences, 19(4), 476-480. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2009.04.003. (Education Research Complete, EBSCO).

Kagerer, Rudolph L.  (September 01, 1974). TOWARD AN AFFECTIVE OUTCOME OF HIGHER EDUCATION. Journal of Educational Measurement, 11, 3, 203-208. Available from Wiley Online Library.

Laforgia, J. (July 01, 1988). The affective domain related to science education and its evaluation. Science Education, 72, 4, 407-421. Available from Wiley Online Library.

Lueers, N. M., & And, O. (1983). How Older Dogs Learn: Adults and Language Learning. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Luppicini, R., & Schnackenberg, H. (2000). In Support of Constructivism: Utilizing Rational, Moral and Communicative Frameworks To Address Frequently Posited Criticisms. (ERIC/EBSCO).

McCollum, D. L. (2003). Investigating Non-Cognitive Components of Foreign Language Achievement. Applied Language Learning, 13(1), 19-32. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Meara, N. M., Wixson, S. E., & Wisconsin State Universities Consortium of Research Development, S. t. (1970). Personality Correlates of Susceptability to Set in Learning. Final Report. CORD Project. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Non-Cognitive Intelligences: Introduction. (2008). Journal of Philosophy of Education, 42(3/4), 609-610. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9752.2008.00680.x. (Education Research Complete, EBSCO).

Park, J., & Lee, L. (2004). Analysing Cognitive or Non-Cognitive Factors Involved in the Process of Physics Problem-Solving in an Everyday Context. International Journal Of Science Education, 26(13), 1577-1595. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Parsons, J., & Johnson, T. (1978). Adults Learn Differently Than Children. An Examination of an Old Basic Assumption. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Pierre, E., & Oughton, J. (December 07, 2007). The Affective Domain: Undiscovered Country. College Quarterly, 10, 4, 1-7. Available from Wiley Online Library.

Rao, D., & Stupans, I. (January 01, 2012). Exploring the Potential of Role Play in Higher Education: Development of a Typology and Teacher Guidelines. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 49, 4, 427-436. Available through ERIC, Elsevier.

Ridgell, S. D., & Lounsbury, J. W. (2004). Predicting Academic Success: General Intelligence, "Big Five" Personality Traits, and Work Drive. College Student Journal, 38(4), 607. (ERIC/EBSCO).

Roberts, R. D., MacCann, C., Matthews, G. and Zeidner, M. (2010), Teaching and Learning Guide for: Emotional Intelligence: Towards a Consensus of Models and Measures. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4: 968–981. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00310.x. Wiley Online LIbrary.

Rovai, A. P., Wighting, M. J., Baker, J. D., & Grooms, L. D. (January 01, 2009). Development of an instrument to measure perceived cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning in traditional and virtual classroom higher education settings. The Internet and Higher Education, 12, 1, 7-13. Available from Article First, ERIC.

Serby, T. (January 01, 2011). Willing Suspension of Disbelief: A Study in Online Learning Through Simulation, and Its Potential for Deeper Learning in Higher Education. Liverpool Law Review, 32, 2, 181-195. Available from Article First.

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Online resources



Cover Art
How Learning Works - Ambrose, Susan A. ; Michael W. Bridges; Michele DiPietro; Marsha C. Lovett; Marie K. Norman; Richard E. Mayer (Foreword by)
ISBN: 9780470484104
Publication Date: Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass, ©2010.
Any conversation about effective teaching must begin with a consideration of how students learn. However, instructors may find a gap between resources that focus on the technical research on learning and those that provide practical classroom strategies. How Learning Works provides the bridge for such a gap. In this volume, the authors introduce seven general principles of learning, distilled from the research literature as well as from twenty-seven years of experience working one-on-one with college faculty. They have drawn on research from a breadth of perspectives (cognitive, developmental, and social psychology; educational research; anthropology; demographics; and organizational behavior) to identify a set of key principles underlying learning-from how effective organization enhances retrieval and use of information to what impacts motivation. These principles provide instructors with an understanding of student learning that can help them see why certain teaching approaches are or are not supporting student learning, generate or refine teaching approaches and strategies that more effectively foster student learning in specific contexts, and transfer and apply these principles to new courses. For anyone who wants to improve his or her students' learning, it is crucial to understand how that learning works and how to best foster it. This vital resource is grounded in learning theory and based on research evidence, while being easy to understand and apply to college teaching.

Cover Art
A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing - Anderson, Lorin W. ; David R. Krathwohl; Peter W. Airasian; Kathleen A. Cruikshank; Richard E. Mayer; Paul R. Pintrich; James Raths; Merlin C. Wittrock
ISBN: 9780321084057
Publication Date: New York : Longman, ©2001.
This revision of Bloom's taxonomy is designed to help teachers understand and implement standards-based curriculums. Cognitive psychologists, curriculum specialists, teacher educators, and researchers have developed a two-dimensional framework, focusing on knowledge and cognitive processes. In combination, these two define what students are expected to learn in school. It explores curriculums from three unique perspectives-cognitive psychologists (learning emphasis), curriculum specialists and teacher educators (C & I emphasis), and measurement and assessment experts (assessment emphasis). This revisited framework allows you to connect learning in all areas of curriculum. Educators, or others interested in educational psychology or educational methods for grades K-12.

Cover Art
Academically Adrift - Arum, Richard ; Josipa Roksa
Call Number: McK (UMCP) Stacks LA227.4 .A78 2011; SG Stacks LA227.4 .A78 2011
ISBN: 9780226028569
Publication Date: Chicago : University of Chicago Press, ©2011.
Are undergraduates really learning anything once they get to college? The answer is no. As troubling as their findings are, the authors argue that for many faculty and administrators this conclusion will come as no surprise and is the expected result of a student body distracted by socializing or working and an institutional culture that puts undergraduate learning close to the bottom of the priority list.

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Our Underachieving Colleges - Bok, Derek Curtis
Call Number: UMCP McK Stacks LB2322.2 .B65 2006; SG Stacks LB2322.2 .B65 2006
ISBN: 9780691125961
Publication Date: Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, ©2006.
Drawing on a large body of empirical evidence, former Harvard President Derek Bok examines how much progress college students actually make toward widely accepted goals of undergraduate education. His conclusions are sobering. Although most students make gains in many important respects, they improve much less than they should in such important areas as writing, critical thinking, quantitative skills, and moral reasoning. Large majorities of college seniors do not feel that they have made substantial progress in speaking a foreign language, acquiring cultural and aesthetic interests, or learning what they need to know to become active and informed citizens. Overall, despite their vastly increased resources, more powerful technology, and hundreds of new courses, colleges cannot be confident that students are learning more than they did fifty years ago. Looking further, Bok finds that many important college courses are left to the least experienced teachers and that most professors continue to teach in ways that have proven to be less effective than other available methods. In reviewing their educational programs, however, faculties typically ignore this evidence. Instead, they spend most of their time discussing what courses to require, although the lasting impact of college will almost certainly depend much more on how the courses are taught. In his final chapter, Bok describes the changes that faculties and academic leaders can make to help students accomplish more. Without ignoring the contributions that America's colleges have made, Bok delivers a powerful critique--one that educators will ignore at their peril

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How People Learn - Bransford, John D. (Editor); Ann L. Brown (Editor); Rodney R. Cocking (Editor); M. Suzanne Donovan; National Research Council Staff; Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and
Call Number: SG Stacks LB1060 .H672 2000; UMCP McK Stacks LB1060 .H672 2000
ISBN: 9780309070362
Publication Date: Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, ©2000.
When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from nonexperts? What can teachers and schools do - with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods - to help children learn most effectively? This book offers exciting new research about the mind, the brain, and the processes of learning that provides answers to these and other question. New information from many branches of science as significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture of what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these finding and their implication for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children - and adults - learn. Newly expanded to show how theories and insights can translate into actions and practice, How People Learn makes a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior.

The new science of learning : how to learn in harmony with your brain - Doyle, Terry; Zakrajsek, Todd
Call Number: EBook available from UMCP
ISBN: 9781461951926
Publication Date: Sterling, Virginia : Stylus, [2013] ©2013
This book is a must-read for students who want time to have a life while also being able to improve the way they learn.Too frequently, students are left on their own to navigate through a variety of study and learning strategies which are often not based on brain research. Neuroscientists know so much about how the brain learns best. Unfortunately, they do not usually present their discoveries to those involved with teaching and neither instructors nor students have the time to sift through the voluminous amount of neuroscientific research currently available. Fortunately, Terry and Todd have done the sifting for you. This book highlights and summarizes some of the most recent and impactful insights for learning and memory. In particular, it helps students to better understand a learner centered approach to teaching and learning, a movement which is slowly becoming the norm in higher education. It is not only packed with practical applications of current brain research but also describes why the application of these skills and strategies work in light of the brain's design. You don't want to miss being a part of this revolutionary approach to learning!

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Mindset: The New Psychology of Success - Dweck, Carol S.
Call Number: SG Stacks BF773 .D85 2008
ISBN: 9780345472328
Publication Date: New York : Ballantine Books, 2008.
Reveals how established attitudes affect all aspects of one's life, explains the differences between fixed and growth mindsets, and stresses the need to be open to change in order to achieve fulfillment and success.

55 Strategies for Better Teaching - Fleming, Neil
Publication Date: Christchurch, N.Z. : Neil Fleming, ©2002.

Teaching and Learning Styles: VARK Strategies - Fleming, Neil
Publication Date: Christchurch, N.Z. : Neil Fleming, ©2001.

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Family, Community, and Higher Education - Jenkins, Toby S. (Editor)
Call Number: UMCP McK Stacks LC238 .F36 2013
ISBN: 9780415502276
Publication Date: Routledge research in education, 89. New York, NY : Routledge, 2013.
This book explores social topics and experiences that illustrate the various ways in which the family unit influences and impacts college students. In the text, the authors not only explore family memories, but also challenge the traditional lack of inclusion and appreciation for family as knowledge producers and educational allies. This book spotlights the family unit as a critical factor within the educational experience, one that prepares, supports, and sustains educational achievement through both everyday simple lessons and critical and difficult family challenges. Through these experiences, families teach the lessons of survival that often help students to persist in college

Taxonomy of educational objectives : the classification of educational goals. Handbook 2, Affective domain - Krakwohl, David; Bloom, Benjamin S.; and Masia, Bertram B.
Publication Date: London, Longmans, 1964.
This landmark book lays the foundation for the role of the affective domain in education. The affective domain is the realm which emphasizes a feeling tone, an emotion, or a degree of acceptance or rejection. The book presents a detailed classification scheme for the affective domain, describes each level in the taxonomy and offers methods for assessment. There are also examples of student achievement at each step in the affective domain hierarchy, and a section that relates learning in the affective domain to learning in the cognitive domain.

The affective and cognitive domains : integration for instruction and research - Martin, Barbara L ; Leslie J Briggs
Call Number: McK Stacks LB1570 .M3669 1986
Publication Date: Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Educational Technology Publications, ©1986.

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Learning in Adulthood - Merriam, Sharan B. ; Rosemary S. Caffarella; Lisa M. Baumgartner
Call Number: EBook; McK Stacks LC5225.L42 M47 2007
ISBN: 9781849725989
Publication Date: Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, ©2007.
In this updated edition, the authors have gathered the seminal work and most current thinking on adult learning into one volume. Addresses a wide range of topics including: Who are adult learners? How do adults learn? Why are adults involved in learning activities? How does the social context shape the learning that adults are engaged in? How does aging affect learning ability?

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The Adolescent Brain - Reyna, Valerie F. (Editor); Sandra B. Chapman (Editor)
Call Number: McK Stacks BF724 .A274 2012; SG Stacks BF724 .A274 2012
ISBN: 9781433810701
Publication Date: Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, ©2012.
"This book brings together the work of scientists with basic or foundational research expertise (e.g., cognitive, developmental, and social psychologists; neuroscientists) and those with an applied emphasis (e.g., on education; public health; applied economics and decision research; and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, the so-called STEM fields) to address a critically understudied area in life-course learning: higher order cognition in adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of integrating these scientific communities is twofold: (a) to advance the basic science of the developing brain by focusing scientists on key problems that are ripe for groundbreaking discoveries and (b) to apply cutting-edge theory and high-quality research methods to real-world problems of learning, cognition, and development, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of research and its immediate relevance to pressing societal needs"-

The Affective Domain in Education - Ringness, Thomas A.
Call Number: McK Stacks LB1051 .R535
Publication Date: Boston : Little, Brown, [1975]

Cover Art
Intellectual Character - Ritchhart, Ron
Call Number: UMCP McK Stacks LB1025.3 .R58 2002
ISBN: 9780787956837
Publication Date: Jossey-Bass education series. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, ©2002.
"In Intellectual Character, Ritchhart introduces the concept of intellectual character and explores how a "dispositional" view of intelligence - focusing on dispositions such as curiosity, skepticism, and open-mindedness - departs from traditional abilities-based views of what it means to be smart. Drawing on research of classroom practice, the author examines how teachers go about establishing a classroom culture that promotes the thinking dispositions they value. He offers detailed examples from individual classrooms to describe how teachers establish norms and create a foundation for thinking early in the school year. Exploring the role of routines for thinking and the uses of language as a tool for thinking, Ritchhart looks at how teachers can effectively prompt, prime, and pattern students' thinking." "Moving beyond merely reporting research findings, Ritchhart reveals ways that educators can make the development of students' intellectual character a reality in the settings in which they work. He provides a wealth of practical exercises, questions, strategies, and advice to help teachers, administrators, and parents explore what it means to teach for intellectual character."

Cooperative Learning - Slavin, Robert E.
Call Number: McK Stacks LB1032 .S54 1983
ISBN: 0582283558
Publication Date: Research on Teaching Monograph Series. New York : Longman, ©1983.
This book is about a set of alternatives to the traditional instructional system: cooperative learning methods. These are techniques that use cooperative task structures, in which students spend much of their class time working in 4-6 member heterogeneous groups. These learning methods also use cooperative incentive structures, in which students earn recognition, rewards, or (occasionally) grades based on the academic performance of their groups. Research on cooperation has been conducted since the beginning of this century, although classroom research on practical cooperative methods began in the early 1970s. There are several cooperative learning methods, which vary in almost every particular. What unites them is their applications of the basic principles of cooperative incentive and task structures to achieve cognitive as well as non-cognitive goals in typical classrooms. The cooperative learning researchers are also united in their belief that the optimal instructional system may not be found within the range of variation among traditional classrooms, but must be created based on sound psychological and pedagogical theory and rigorously evaluated in classroom practice. This book presents the theoretical basis of cooperative learning, the methods based on this theory, and the results of evaluations of these methods. (JMK)

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Learning and Memory: the Brain in Action - Sprenger, Marilee
Call Number: Ebook; available through EBSCO, UMCP Libraries
ISBN: 9780871203502
Publication Date: Alexandria, Va., USA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1999

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The Learning Paradigm College - Tagg, John ; Peter T. Ewell (Foreword by)
Call Number: CSU Stacks LB2331 .T24 2003; TU Stacks LB2331 .T24 2003; UB Stacks LB2331 .T24 2003
ISBN: 1882982584
Publication Date: Bolton, Mass. : Anker Pub. Co., ©2003.
In The Learning Paradigm College, John Tagg builds on the ground-breaking Change magazine article he coauthored with Robert Barr in 1995, "From Teaching to Learning; A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education.

Factor structure of the non-cognitive questionnaire-revised : across samples of black and white college students - Tracey, Terence J ; William E Sedlacek
Call Number: McK Folio LB2343 .M35 no.88-13; HBK Spec Coll UPUB C53.003 no.88-13
Publication Date: Research report (University of Maryland at College Park. Counseling Center), #88-13. College Park, M

Workshop on using non-cognitive variables with minority students in higher education - Westbrook, Franklin D.; William E Sedlacek
Call Number: McK Folio LB2343 .M35 no.87-4; HBK Spec Coll UPUB C53.003 no.87-4
Publication Date: Research report (University of Maryland, College Park. Counseling Center), 87-4. College Park, Md. :

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The Art of Changing the Brain - Zull, James E.
Call Number: UMCP McK Stacks LB1057 .Z85 2002
ISBN: 9781579220549
Publication Date: Sterling, Va. : Stylus Pub., 2002.
Examines how current knowledge about the human brain and its interactions with the senses and the physical world can influence the practice of teaching.


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